New Innate Lymphoïd Cell (ILC) population in severe allergic asthma

De Life Sciences UPSaclay

ILCs are a new family of immune cells with some similarities with Thelper cells. A collaboration study recently published in Allergy in asthma patients has been developed between INSERM/UPSud UMR-S 996 (Sylvie Chollet-Martin, Faculté de Pharmacie UPSud, Châtenay-Malabry), a member of the LabEx LERMIT, Bichat hospital Pneumology Department (Michel Aubier, Paris) and Stallergenes Greer Research Department (Vincent Lombardi, Antony).

The authors previously showed that patients with severe allergic asthma have high numbers of circulating ILC2s expressing the CCR10 chemokine receptor. Herein, when compared to healthy controls, CCR10+ ILC2s are enriched in the blood of both allergic and non‐allergic severe asthmatic patients, and these cells are recruited to the lungs. Plasma concentrations of the CCR10 ligand CCL27 are significantly increased in severe asthmatics when compared to non‐asthmatic patients. CCR10+ ILC2s secrete little TH2 cytokines, but exhibit ILC1‐like properties, including a capacity to produce IFN‐γ. Also, single‐cell analysis reveals that the CCR10+ ILC2 subset is enriched in cells expressing amphiregulin (EGF family). CCR10+ ILC2 depletion, as well as blocking of IFN‐γ activity, exacerbates airway hyperreactivity in allergen‐challenged mice, providing evidence for a protective role of these cells in allergic inflammation.

 

In conclusion, this new study shows that the frequencies of circulating CCR10+ ILC2s and CCL27 plasma concentrations represent candidate markers of asthma severity. The characterization of CCR10+ ILC2s with ILC1-like properties in human samples and in mouse asthma models suggests that these cells downregulate allergic inflammation through IFN‐γ production.

 

Contact : sylvie.chollet-martin @ u-psud.fr ou vincent_lombardi @ hotmail.com